How Banking Institutions Can be Decentralized, Explained
How does decentralized banking look?
Decentralized banking is a term that has been construed in the wake of the cryptocurrency boom.
That is because cryptocurrencies are the first intelligent asset that can create such a tool.
And because of this, many are referring to decentralized banking as “crypto banking.” Cryptobanks are decentralized platforms that provide the usual services that centralized banks provide, primarily lending services and credit scoring, but essentially cuts out all of the middlemen that a centralized bank uses. The people needed in a bank to approve loans and structure financial data are replaced in a crypto banking ecosystem by smart contracts and p2p, peer-to-peer, services.
Currently, most of the network will be online, as all issues can be solved online. The “bank” takes shape in the form of a computer interface, whether on a desktop or a phone, and the currencies dealt with are mostly cryptocurrencies.
How is this different from decentralized exchanges?
Decentralized exchanges or DEX swap currencies, while decentralized banking swaps credit and trust.
DEX, which is also a new concept, utilizes p2p transactions between two users who want each other’s currency. For example, if Alice wants to sell six ETH for five BTC, and Bob wants to sell five BTC for six ETH, the DEX exchange will trade these for them without a middleman. Cryptobanking utilizes decentralized p2p trading in the same way but uses it for lending purposes. While the lending process sounds a lot more complicated, the goal is to make it as automated a possible- making transactions fast like DEX exchanges.
What kind of technologies do crypto banks use?
P2P, Blockchain, cryptocurrencies, Machine Learning, Big Data and smart contracts are used in crypto banking.
P2P. Participants are private users, not banking institutions. The crypto bank links a borrower that meets the correct credentials to a lender. P2P takes away many of the bureaucratic processes that centralized banks need to go through when approving a loan.
Blockchain. All transactions are recorded on the Blockchain. It is a transparent, immutable ledger that will provide data for users and well as AI algorithms to find the right matches for lenders and borrowers.
Machine Learning Big Data.These technologies help to automate the lending process and cut through bureaucracy. AI can work 24/7 and match lenders with borrowers.
Cryptocurrencies. While fiat can be used in decentralized banking, cryptocurrencies operate much smoother and will become the sole future of decentralized banking. These decentralized currencies speak the language of the Blockchain and keep perfect track of asset transactions.
Smart Contract. Smart contracts are used for a variety of reasons in crypto banking, such as converting currencies, binding contracts between two parties and automating transference of funds between the borrower and lender.
Do crypto banks have their own native currency?
Yes. Native cryptocurrencies help make the bank global.
Datarius, the first social p2p crypto bank, for instance, uses their own native token DTRC for all transactions. This helps create a standard for a global payment system within the p2p lending process. Tokens are easily transferable to other cryptocurrencies, as well as fiat. The native cryptocurrency speaks the language of the native Blockchain and creates an incentive for the currency to appreciate in value. It gives the token concrete utility; an essential part of the puzzle.
How safe is p2p lending? Can machine learning really find the right borrower for a lender’s standards?
While the process is automated, there are plenty of toggle functions which lets borrowers and lenders control with whom they want to work.
In the company’s model, borrowers are categorized into three different listings, which range from the minimally verified borrower, via verified transactions made by the borrower on, say, the Datarius Blockchain, to fully transparent borrowers who are reviewed by risk management. Less trustworthy individuals can account for higher interest rates and build up credit, and those with high credit can ask for lower interest rates. But these decisions are really up to the lender, which makes p2p wonderful- decentralized banking will see some new interest rates based on people interaction.
What is social lending?
Social lending looks at many aspects of a borrower to determine their score.
Thanks to Big Data and AI, crypto banks can see beyond a borrower's credit score to identify their level of trust. Listings can include Trust Limit, Trust Management and User Ratings which helps AI decide if the participant is justified in borrowing from a specific lender.
Particularly, Trust Limit, for instance, gives the possibility to automatically pick up some funds from your wallet by any user according to your requirements, say, ratings, user groups, etc.
It will allow to automate lending with small amounts. Based on this, there will also be the so-called "credit" cards, and when you have insufficient funds, you will automatically pick up some from Trust Limit. And that is one of the main points of socialization - you can "trust" every user of the system.
What other ways does machine learning help?
AI contributes in many ways in a decentralized banking system, including fraud, forecasting, scoring and calculations.
Fight fraud. Tracking suspicious transactions and artificial rating raising; having automated systems for finding unreliable users with high probability. This is what allows Daritus to create a social aspect to their rating system. AI helps stomp out fraudsters and give room for users to be judged on points other than credit.
Forecasting. This will help lenders understand the risks involved with borrowers. AI forecasting can also predict when payments are likely to be made based on the borrower’s data.
Scoring. Risk assessment when granting a loan. This can come from a wide variety of big data from the borrower.
Is the reach larger than that of centralized banks?
Decentralized banking is global.
The advantage to using a universal cryptocurrency, AI automation, and ease of access via cell phone means that users can access all over the world. This will also create a huge market for micro-loans, a service made popular for startup businesses in developing areas by offering small loans to people with zero credit but known in the community as trustworthy. Crypto banks will create a large loan marketplace throughout the globe that traditional banking can never touch. Centralized banks are restricted to brick and mortar locations, bureaucracy and many people to pay. Decentralized banks do not have these strings attached and can easily scale globally. A global economy will be stimulated through global banking.
What are the benefits of decentralized banking?
In today’s world, 2.5 bln people do not have access to banks.
Yet, only one bln don’t have access to cell phones. Decentralized banking has the mobile infrastructure to allow those without access that to at least have a chance at having a decentralized bank. Simple mobile wallets will be used to store cryptocurrencies, and DApps can give many people an opportunity to take out loans and have a shot at starting something big. These banks can reach places that centralized, traditional banks will never reach, the truth is that centralized banks are becoming too bulky in light of Blockchain and the fall of the middleman.
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